https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/issue/feed Afak for Sciences 2024-03-08T15:59:44+00:00 Taha Hocine Noui Revueafak@gmail.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Afak for sciences&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Afak for Sciences is&nbsp; Journal international, Trimestrial, peer-reviewed and open access journal, that is issued and edited by Ziane Achour University of Djelfa. It publishes works from a wide range of scientific knowledge and academic interdisciplinary authorship, including fields of language, human and social sciences plus economic studies. Afak aims to provide the most up-to-date scientific researchs by targeting all academic researchers . It is available in both printed and online formats and provides an opportunity for publication in three languages: Arabic, English and French.</p> https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/924 A critical approach on translation as a learning activity in FL (Foreign Language) classes 2024-03-07T21:07:30+00:00 Saridaki Saridaki evasarid@hotmail.com <p><strong><em>A One of the main issues addressed in the field of Translation Studies regards the usefulness of translation as a learning activity in language classes. Indeed, the use of translation has been perceived differently and it has been the object of criticism and controversy in foreign language teaching. The present paper aims at investigating the contribution of translation as a pedagogical tool in foreign language classes by suggesting that there is a strong relationship between translation and foreign language learning in the sense that it helps learners acquire, develop and further strengthen their knowledge and competences in a foreign language. Αfter providing readers with a description of translation as a multidimensional activity, a main distinction is made between three types of teaching activities which all involve translation but they are used in different contexts: language teaching, translation teaching and translator training. Afterwards, the present research focuses on the basic arguments for and against the use of translation in language teaching, followed by some proposals so that translation can be effectively incorporated into a foreign language class. The main conclusion is that translation should be thought of as a challenging, supporting and creative learning activity to foreign language learning that would help students to further develop their language competences.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></strong></p> 2023-09-17T22:39:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/925 The impact of covid-19 pandemic on the real estate industry 2024-03-07T21:07:30+00:00 Bouamara Zakaria Zakaria.Bouamara@bayes.city.ac.uk Jörg-Martin Ries Zakaria.Bouamara@bayes.city.ac.uk <p>This paper studies the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on the real estate market. In order to examine this impact, we will use the event study methodology to examine how the stock prices of real estate companies behaved following the covid-19 outbreak. This can be done by examining the abnormal returns (ARs) and the Cumulative Abnormal Returns (CARs) and the Cumulative Average Abnormal Returns (CAARs). The sample that will be used to conduct the study contains 5 major real estate companies; Segro plc, Land Securities plc, Unite Group plc, British Land Company plc, Derwent London plc. The event window will be 58 days following the outbreak of the covid-19. The findings show negative short term CAARs, in which the CARs of the companies ranged from -0.79% to -4.10%, then followed by a small recovery with the CARs ranging from 2.34% to 3.29%. After that, significant negative CAARs were reported followed by another recovery with the CARs within the range of [-10.35, -21.32%] and [5.99%, 8.12%] respectively. These findings indicate that the covid-19 pandemic had a small short-term negative impact followed by a bigger impact in the next few weeks, then the real estate stock prices stabilise after that returning to he pre-covid levels.</p> 2023-09-17T22:46:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/927 Request for offers in accordance with what is included in the Tunisian and Algerian law 2024-03-07T21:07:29+00:00 زين العابدين لعطار zinelabidine@gmail.com <p>Concluding a public deal is a legal process that takes place according to the rules of free competition and is characterized by the multiplicity and different methods adopted for selecting the contractor with the public purchaser, and the principle is that the administration is free to choose the method of contracting unless the law imposes on it a specific method. The usual method of concluding public procurement is to request bids, especially after canceling the tender. In this context, the subject of the request for proposals comes down to a general procedure through which the administration subject the contracting process to the greatest degree of competition while preserving its freedom to award the deal.</p> 2023-09-17T22:59:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/929 The parental depression on children’s school failure 2024-03-07T21:07:26+00:00 sihem epse dris kheloufi sihem.kheloufi@univ-bejaia.dz <p>The objective of the present study is to detect the symptoms that lead to the <em>onset of the depression, for the parents that lead the school failure. Our sample consisted of 5 cases (parents+child) we used the clinical method, , the latter took place at the level of EPSP elkseur ,the result demonstrated the positive relationship of parent depression and the children’s school failure tant means the impact of the first on the second. which signifies the importance of caring for parents suffering from depression and their children in the psychological help center, and by a psychologist in the educational structure</em>.</p> 2023-09-18T19:05:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/930 Simultaneos interpreting:towards a better performance 2024-03-07T21:07:29+00:00 Boutabba Samira samar2017b@gmail.com <p>Consecutive and simultaneous interpreting, a very promising job; it gives the opportunity to work in a multilingual and multicultural context. However it is a very stressful job. This paper aims at revealing the difficulties faced by interpreters, that latter might be linguistic, cognitive, or psychological. PNL. Neurolinguistic programming is a very rich and efficient field that could help interpreters to overcome the obstacles, its techniques would give them an assistance have extra competences and acquire aptitudes to make the job easier; as for interpreting or translating in front of a hyper attentive audience.&nbsp;</p> 2023-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/932 Representations and language practices of Algerian students in France between desire for success and culture shock 2024-03-07T21:07:28+00:00 Sabrina Aissaoui aissaoui.sabrina@univ-guelma.dz <p>We focus on the Algerian students living in France who are asked to use all available means to adapt to their surrounding and succeed in their academic career. According to this view, we will answer the following question: how do these students perceive French language and what is the impact of this perception on their integration and success in France?</p> <p>We opted for a qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the corpus revealed a very ambivalent relationship of respondents to their languages which wavered between the symbolic domination of the French language and the rejection of Arabic.</p> 2023-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/934 Contribution to the examination of intellectual efficiency in adults, case study 2024-03-07T21:07:26+00:00 Boumazouza Nassima boumazouza.nassima@gmail.com Haddadi Dalila dhaddadi2@yahoo.fr <p>The aim of this study is to present a detailed examination of intellectual efficiency in adults.&nbsp; Our case study was conducted at the Psychological Support Center of the University of Algiers 2, the examination concerns a postgraduate student in a situation of repetitive failure. In order to carry out the examination of intellectual efficiency, we utilized the Rey-A Complex Figure and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in its 4th version. The analysis revealed an average level of performance governed by signs of impulsivity and anxiety.</p> 2023-09-18T20:25:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/936 The startup in Algeria : Characteristics and creation 2024-03-07T21:07:26+00:00 Malika Beggah bbeggah@yahoo.fr <p><em>Having been born in Algeria, the term "startup" has not existed for long. It has only become widespread internationally in the last twenty years. The startup is a company that has been recently created and that evolves in the sector of new technologies with high growth potential. It is a company like no other, it is a new innovative company with a high growth potential and speculation on its future value. A start-up is different from a classic company. They are two structures that do not function in the same way, that do not have the same dynamics nor the same objectives. The purpose of this study is to clarify this new concept, but also the main terms that revolve around it, as well as to determine the difference between a start-up and a traditional company.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;A traditional company is a structure designed to design, manufacture and market products. The fundamental difference is that a company is organized to optimize and execute a Business model that works, while a startup is organized to find one</em></p> 2023-09-18T20:44:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/937 The mental health of students 2024-03-07T21:07:25+00:00 Lamia Benamsili lamia.benamsili@univ-bejaia.dz Bachir Haderbache bachir.haderbache@univ-bejaia.dz <p><a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/Health">Health</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/is">is</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/a">a</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/key">key</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/determinant">determinant</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/sustainable">sustainable</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/development">development</a>. <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/Thus">Thus</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/mental">mental</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/health">health</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/is">is</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/an">an</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/indicator">indicator</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/the">the</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/health">health</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/status">status</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/a">a</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/population">population</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/as">as</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/a">a</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/whole">whole</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/including">including</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/that">that</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/the">the</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/student">student</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/community">community</a>. <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/Algeria">Algeria</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/like">like</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/other">other</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/countries">countries</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/is">is</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/increasingly">increasingly</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/concerned">concerned</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/about">about</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/the">the</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/well-being">well-being</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/students">students</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/who">who</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/in">in</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/order">order</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/to">to</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/be">be</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/involved">involved</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/in">in</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/development">development</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/must">must</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/enjoy">enjoy</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/good">good</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/mental">mental</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/health">health</a>. <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/The">The</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/objective">objective</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/this">this</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/article">article</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/is">is</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/to">to</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/take">take</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/stock">stock</a> by proposing a non-exhaustive review of the literature and returning <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/Algeria's">Algeria's</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/efforts">efforts</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/in">in</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/favour">favour</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/students'">students'</a>; <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/mental">mental</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/health">health</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/in">in</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/particular">particular</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/by">by</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/questioning">questioning</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/official">official</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/texts">texts</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/on">on</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/this">this</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/subject">subject</a>, <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/with">with</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/regard">regard</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/to">to</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/the">the</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/crucial">crucial</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/role">role</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/of">of</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/students">students</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/in">in</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/achieving">achieving</a> <a href="https://fr.pons.com/traduction/anglais-français/development">development</a>.</p> 2023-09-18T20:51:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/938 Digital pedagogy in the development of the skill of reading comprehension. Case of 2nd A.S.‎ learners 2024-03-07T21:07:28+00:00 Nassima ABERKANE aberkane.nassima@ensb.dz <p>Our work falls within the framework of shedding light on the notion of learning aids in relation to ICT(E), which constitutes a necessary problem in the facilitation of the educational act. Thus, we considered the use of a digital document in FLE class to be able to solve the problems of reading comprehension. To do this, we will rely on the cognitive approach which focuses on the analysis of the mental functioning of learners.</p> 2023-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/940 Social responsibility as an element of sustainable development between texts and context.Case of the state company ICOTAL of Bejaia. 2024-03-07T21:07:27+00:00 Mahmoud DJADDA mahmoud.djadda@univ-bejaia.dz <p>This article focuses on corporate CSR as a determining element of sustainable development, linked, Corporate Social Responsibility is the projection of Sustainable Development, On a practical level we try to understand the theories put forward on CSR and note its impact on the company then answer questions related to the presumed positive contents of CSR on the image of the company and the motivation of human resources through two dependent variables of the study namely the image and the motivation through a theoretical plan the conceptual framework of social responsibility and a positive influence of the application of a CSR approach in HRM.</p> 2023-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/941 Predictive justice justice in the age of artificial intelligence: Advantages and disadvantages 2024-03-07T21:07:25+00:00 Zaina Ait-Ali zainaaitali@yahoo.fr <p>Today many parts of society are impacted by artificial intelligence such as medicine, robotics, finance, the world of games, information... And justice is not spared by this inevitable movement, so much so that the expression of predictive justice has made its appearance. The introduction of artificial intelligence to justice has already begun, bringing with it many questions about its impact.</p> 2023-09-18T21:14:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/942 Criteria for considering "Covid-19" as a biological disaster, and prevention mechanisms and measures 2024-03-07T21:07:24+00:00 SAMAH Mohamed Abdelfettah abdelfettah.samah@univ-saida.dz <p>Following the announcement of some “COVID-19” cases in Blida "The Algerian authorities have put in place preventive and curative measures and procedures aimed at first besieging the epicenter of the epidemic and then taking care of the infected people, among these measures are Executive Decrees No. 20-69 and n°20-70, in addition to the existing legislative arsenal, in particular the law n° 03-10, N° 04-20, and N° 18-11.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; All indications were that we were in an unusual and dangerous situation, which required extraordinary measures and actions, so it was better to be treated as a biological disaster, and to take action under Bill 04-20 on the prevention of major risks and disaster management in the context of sustainable development, and not treated as an ordinary epidemic</p> 2023-09-18T21:19:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/943 Literary text in secondary school textbooks: the limits of the generic model presented and the absence of a reading approach in FFL 2024-03-07T21:07:24+00:00 Nassima BAGDADI Nassima.bagdadi@univ-alger2.dz <p>The teaching/learning of literary text in Algerian secondary schools obeys objectives that focus, for the most part, on linguistic aspects without taking into consideration all the attributes that such a medium could bring in terms of reading and discovery. The literary dimension is thus dissociated from the medium, and the benefits that it can bring in terms of reading are thus hidden. In this article, we will question the textbooks on the question of the generic model presented, on the teaching/learning approach adopted and on the strategies advocated.</p> 2023-09-18T21:25:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/945 The conceptual metaphor in metadiscourse 2024-03-07T21:07:27+00:00 Hamdi Walid walid.hamdi@yahoo.fr <p>Inscribing this article from the outset within the framework of cognitivism is a bet on the conceptual. It is indeed an approach that offers itself both as deepening and as reassessment: it is deepening because it points to the talkative subject in its conversion into a thinking subject; it is also re-evaluation because it authorizes signs to signify themselves differently. As a concretization of this innovative spirit shown by this approach, we will propose to seize the metadiscourse as a support for the study of the conceptual metaphor, and this through two main works that we take as fairly representative of the whole of the "esthetics". » metalinguistics; it is therefore Grammar Methodology of French1 and Dictionary of Linguistics2. At first, we will be very tempted by the definitional part where the main concepts relating to the conceptual metaphor will be exposed. In a second moment, we will try to examine the notion of spatialization which presides over a large number of metadisursive concepts. We intend to demonstrate, in the last part, how the human mind assigns itself its own bodily experience, and thereby ontological, as the foundation of the (meta)discursive metaphor.</p> 2023-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/946 The place of the receiver in the discourse of the press Tunisia: Le temps 2011 2024-03-07T21:07:23+00:00 GHOUAIDIA Jamil ghouaidia_jamil@yahoo.fr <p>En menant notre recherche de doctorat sur la question de l’objectivité dans le discours dela presse tunisienne, nous avons constaté que l’un des phénomènes énonciatifs les plus saillants dans la presse fut la présence de la fonction conative du langage. Toutefois, cettequestion n’était pas suffisamment traitée. Il nous incombe dans le cadre de cet article de revenir sur ce point, et ce en interrogeant la place du lecteur dans le discours de la presse tunisienne d’expression française2. Cela nous amène à analyser le contrat de lecture (Véron, 1983) établi entre le journal le Temps et ses lecteurs. Ce contrat semble donner lieu à un certain rapport d’interlocution et mérite une attention particulière dans lamesure où on assiste à un changement des modalités énonciatives dans le journal. En fait, lela presse tunisienne a tenté d’accorder une place importante aux récepteurs en effaçant ladistance imposée par la nature du support. Traiter de la problématique de la réception3 revientà identifier deux types de récepteurs-: la personne physique qui achète et qui lit le journal ourécepteur cible et celui qui se trouve construit dans et par la presse ou récepteur imaginé. Enl’absence de données tangibles susceptibles de nous renseigner sur le lecteur cible, nous allons nous intéresser au deuxième type. Pour ce faire, nous allons adopter une démarche qui consiste à partir des formes du discours pour y trouver la traduction cristallisée des normes et enjeux de la situation de communication</p> 2023-09-18T21:42:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/947 On The Impact Of Information And Communication Technologies: When Rumor Takes Power 2024-03-07T21:07:22+00:00 Akpan Desiré N’GUESSAN Kouassi dezakpan@gmail.com Jacques KOUACOU N’goran ngoranjack@gmail.com <table width="104%"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="2" width="552">With the rapid development of information and communication technologies, it is reasonable to believe that reliable information will be offered to citizens, given that the technological means are available to practitioners to carry out their investigations. But it is clear that rumors and similar phenomena such as disinformation, fake news have spread enormously and are thriving more and more, hence the difficulty of distinguishing true from false in a very connected world where news go fast; especially that certain erroneous information conveyed can have negative repercussions, even dangerous for the populations and even for a country. Based on a corpus relating to recent events in Côte d'Ivoire, the aim will be to see the factors that make rumors attractive and to identify their implications. To this end, we will situate ourselves in the approach of enunciative pragmatics for the processing of our data.</td> <td width="0">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td width="552">&nbsp;</td> <td width="0">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> 2023-09-22T20:49:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/948 The discursive construction of identity in the editorial of the Cameroonian radio Crtv: a rhetoric of consensus in a situation of socio-political crisis 2024-03-07T21:07:23+00:00 Maїoua Maїoua Jean Clément cmaioua1@gmail.com <p>It is argued that the discursive construction of identity participates in a rhetoric of consensus in a situation of sociopolitical crisis. To demonstrate this, we dwell on a corpus of editorials from Cameroon Radio Television (Crtv). The demonstration is based on the achievements of discourse analysis, both argumentative and communicational. In turn, therefore, and gradually, the article opens with a methodological and theoretical presentation (1), the main objects of which oscillate between definition of the corpus, presentation of the field of research and conceptualization of the notion of identity. Much later, we will question the content of the identity discourse (2), which will be broken down into journalist identities (2.1.), collective identities (2.2.) and affirmation of a national identity (2.3.).</p> 2023-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/949 Legal nature of documentary credit in Algerian legislation 2024-03-07T21:07:23+00:00 KHOUATRA Samia s.khouatra@univ-boumerdes.dz <p>The documentary credit agreement plays its role in facilitating international foreign trade operations, particularly maritime trade, in addition to the credit process obtained from the issuing bank, and taking into account the multiplicity of actors in the documentary credit process, since this mechanism is governed by international rules that are considered a model to be followed for the adoption of national texts in the context of the implementation of contracts. types, and the system of united international rules and customs, thus constitutes the status of documentary credit as a means of ensuring the performance of obligations arising from the contract of international commercial transactions.</p> 2023-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/950 The role of school sport in reducing school violence among middle school 2024-03-07T21:07:22+00:00 khedidja selami k.selami@univ-djelfa.dz kerbouche walid walidkerbouche4@gmail.com tahar messaoudi t.messaoudi@univ-djelfa.dz <p>The purpose of this study is to identify the role of school sports in detecting verbal and physical violence with students of the fourth year, Where the study was conducted on a sample of 25 professors, Professor of physical education study averages activists, The descriptive approach has also been distributed through Esteban composed of twenty (20), have been using spss program 22 to analyze survey results. Finally the results of the study on the validity of the proposed hypotheses where you reach:</p> <p>-School sports contribute moderately to detect aggressive verbal violence among fourth year students.</p> <p>-School sports contribute moderately to detect physical violence&nbsp; in the fourth year students.</p> 2023-09-22T21:13:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/951 Measurement of the Role of the Cultural Associations in Promoting the Sustainable Tourism in the Historical Towns -the Cultural Associations in the Casbah of Algiers as a Model – 2024-03-07T21:07:21+00:00 naouel Kallab Debbih Kallabdebbih.naouel@univ-oeb.dz <p>We aim through this studyto identify and measure the role of the cultural associations in promoting the sustainable tourism in the historical towns; some cultural associations in the Casbah of Algiersto check that. To achieve that goal, the descriptive analytical method was adopted, in addition to a questionnaire administrated to members and affiliates of these associations. The results showed that the level of the role of the cultural associations in promoting the sustainable tourism the Casbah of Algiers was very low; the results revealed also the existence differences, with a statistical significance at α 0.05 =significance level, which is due to the variables (educational level, the geographical origin, the period of residency in the neighborhood) of the questioned individuals. The study concluded with a series of recommendations and suggestions.</p> 2023-09-22T21:16:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/952 Social Networks and The News Function An Analytical Reading of The Context and Concepts 2024-03-07T21:07:21+00:00 Amira DOUIB amira.douib@univ-tebassa.dz Radouane BELKHIRI belkhiri.radouane@univ-tebessa.dz <p>This research paper discusses the importance of social media in spreading news and information, and the opportunities that these platforms provide for journalists, activists, and ordinary citizens to exchange news and information. The article also highlights the challenges and issues facing news on digital media, including issues related to the health and credibility of published news and information. Additionally, we will attempt to identify the role of social media in raising awareness, education, and interaction with the audience, as well as the challenges facing press freedom and human rights, especially in the presence of a revolution that solidified the professionalism and existence of these platforms. The article also illustrates the efforts made to ensure the quality of content and achieve credibility and transparency in the media, as well as the new technologies that help correct misleading information and contribute to ensuring the accuracy of published news and information. Finally, the article explores the future challenges that may face news functions on social media, including technological changes, social and political transformations</p> 2023-09-22T21:21:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/953 Representation of Reification through the Method of Description in the New Novel (The Guardian of the Shadows by Wassini ALaraj as a Model ) 2024-03-07T21:07:20+00:00 nassima Houra n.houra@univ-djelfa.dz <p>Reification emerged after the expansion of the capitalist system”s impact on society. Individuals began to live in a society swept by the ideology of exalting material&nbsp; at the expense of human valure .</p> <p>The art of the novel depicts what goes through this marginalized and reified&nbsp; individual’s mind . Therefore ,the style of descriptive language changed&nbsp; .That is why we monitor this phenomenon in our study through linking the writer’s vision to these linguistic characteristics . In addition we show the text’sartistic vision by following the description and analysis method .</p> 2023-09-22T21:25:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences https://afak-revues.com/index.php/afak/article/view/935 Philosophizing with children: educational and cognitive epistemology 2024-03-08T15:59:44+00:00 MAIZ Houria MANSOURI houria.maiz@ummto.dz <p>The aim of our research is to demonstrate the importance of the school as an effective tool that society USES to supervise and develop the child's personality. It is also a question of emphasising the importance of teaching philosophy for the child, which could play a reflex role of emancipation and awakening. It goes without saying that philosophy enables children and adolescents to experience a new way of acting and interacting with other children and the teacher by valuing dialogue, listening and respect for others. To practice philosophy with children is to discover the discursive potential and the degree of persuasion in the child from the questions and their ability to be surprised.</p> 2023-09-23T19:59:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Afak for Sciences